Coalition of Wills : Paul Kagame,Yoweri Museveni, Uhuru Kenyatta and Salva kiir. This political vision is not mine. As panafricanist, I want to contribute to it. Because, it’s a maturation of the oldest ideas of Panafricanism but also a rupture: the ideal remains the same, the African Unity – but, now – it should be used as an ideology to solve permanently and structurally, same biggest political problems of a domestic nature.
1. Political vision
Africa is in lack of ”a group of local powers’’ able to run required transformations” while remaining true to herself. It is imperative to ensure a Pan-African state which would be the new big idea why people would rise to ”invest time, expertise and intelligence ” and ” would be willing to sacrifice their lives” (Achille Mbembe).
The ”coalition of wills” between Rwanda, Uganda and Kenya and South Sudan could be a core departure of a new Republic in Africa – let’s us call it ”Republic of Lumumba”. Formal process of their Union could be done through a ‘‘Pan-African Sovereign Conference’’. Gradually, other countries from ICGLR and those from IGAD and SADC could enter into this new Republic of Lumumba by bringing their new ‘‘autonomous districts’’ through a process of self-dissolution of post colonial states, under different national conferences.
I suggest to 4 countries to get their audacity to form a new ”Republic” and beyond cleavages inherited from colonialism.
Table 1: Number of Districts & Estimated population within Republic of Lumumba
|Postcolonial state||Area (Km2)||Number of districts||Estimated Populations|
With its 1,462,490 Km2 and a population of around 100,500 million people in 2014 and immense potential, ”Lumumba” could meet needs of all ‘[lumumbians” and negotiate a win-win strategic partnership with the West.
During the Transition period – for a limited period (maximum 10 years) – , Presidents Uhuru Kenyatta, Yoweri Museveni, Paul Kagame, Salva Kiir could form a Presidential Council of Transition for its edification.The central government would be headed by a Prime Minister.
After the Transition period, the central government would be headed by a Prime Minister on behalf of a Presidential Council composed of governors of districts (24 autonomous districts, with modest size for each).
The new state should act as a suction pump of public revenue and as a redistribution structure of these funds to the central government (50%) and to local authorities (40% for local budgets and 10% for the Equalization Fund).
The ultimate goal would be to invent an African culture of deliberation and compromise which does not necessarily require use force by protesters or by those- -who want to keep power.
Beyond specific interests of each political regime in the states of the Great Lakes Region and weakness of their governance structures, it is possible to a ‘‘Sovereign Pan-African Conference’’ to decide on the unification of these states into a single state: Republic of Lumumba, including Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya and South-Sudan.
There should be a willingness of the current political leaders to build a new republic as a state of 24 really autonomous districts with local governments.
2. Ideological framework
Panafricanism is a bias, as constructive utopia and prospect, for African Unity for three fundamental reasons:
First: Many pre-colonial peoples were divided into two or three post-colonial states in Africa. Often, people continue to cross borders between post-colonial states as if there had been no settlement. The phenomenon so called ”customs fraud” is – a reality for all populations – a continuous business as it was before European colonization. There is a sort of collective schizophrenia to be eradicated. It is better to work for meaningful regional political integration for these populations.
Second: Beyond economic integration, the best way to resolve the issue of identity distress (anxieties) is to remove boundaries in Africa at maximum level. We must encourage internal movement of populations while paving the international reality of tomorrow, that of Continent-States. We must therefore encourage the movement of people and goods in Africa through regional economic integration.
Third: It is clear – without political unity, the development process in Africa will be helpless and pathetic. It is desirable for that globalization to start by and for Africans themselves, by aligning into a big movement for an United Africa, a sort of United States of Africa.
African peoples have to face to a colonial rape maintained by post colonial states that still somehow oppress and divide them into several political entities and various official and foreign languages such as French, English, Portuguese and Spanish.
On the ground there is a resurgence of ethnic conflicts. Panafricanism is an opportunity for us to redefine in United Africa new districts which could allow local leaders to respond effectively to people’s concerns. We also note that ethnic differences today are manipulated by elites and have become – politically – the most important internal condition of underdevelopment and external domination of the continent.
Panafricanism as it was preached since the 1960s until 1970 was aiming the tightening of ties between African States in order to face neocolonialist domination. Panafricanism was serving as relay to Soviet propaganda against the West.
3. Sovereign Pan-African Conference
The official creation of the Republic of Lumumba would be done through a Sovereign Pan-African Conference. Its composition would be done by State and by district in terms of delegates to this Conference.
The Representatives of civil society should be determined by the ratio between the estimated populations of a state and area average of district within that state. It reflects the extent of the state, the density of its population by district. In addition, we must rely on 20 people by local government following the configuration of ”Lumumba” in its local entities. Each post colonial state will have right to 100 official delegates.
Representation of civil society should be determined by the ratio between the estimated state populations and the area average of the district in this state. It reflects the extent (area) of that state but weighted by population density. In addition, we must rely on 20 people for each local entity, depending on the expected local entities of the ”Republic of Lumumba” in its geographical configuration. Each post colonial state shall be entitled to 100 official Delegates.
|Post colonial State||Delegates By State|
|Representatives of civil society||20 people per district||Political Leaders (package)||Total|
|Upper chamber (20 persons by state)||
- Each district would provide a number of people from the lower chamber to draft the Constitution of the Republic of Lumumba and other documents relating to the Transition (10 years).
- Each current state would provide 20 persons to sit into the upper house for any amendments of documents relating to the transition.
Validation of mandates would be done plenary and Delegates should proclaim the sovereignty of the Pan-African Conference:
- The end of post-colonial states of Delegates represented at the Sovereign Pan African Conference.
- Delegates to the Pan-African Conference Sovereign should proclaim the birth of the ”Republic of Lumumba”.
- Delegates to the Pan-African Conference Sovereign and would suit of draft constitution for the new Republic.
- Delegates to the Pan-African Conference Sovereign would suit of Transitional Constitution
- Delegates to the Pan-African Conference Sovereign would formally designate leaders of the Institutions of the Transition for 10 years
- The central government would be headed by a Presidential Council of Transition (PCI) and the Prime Minister should be responsible for the implementation of decisions of that Council.
- All current ‘‘national’’ parliamentarians should meet in a single legislative chamber for a period of 10 years: this will be Parliament during the Transition
- At the end of the transition, members of the Presidential Council of Transition should be Senators for life and it should be the same for the Prime Minister of Transition, the Vice- Prime Ministers and for Members of the Bureau of the Parliament of Transition.
- The members of the Presidential Council should supervise governmental activities during the transition by assuming – for each member – a vital role as Vice President of the Republic, but one of them would necessarily be chosen as head of state for one year.
- Preparatory meetings of high-level leaders of the current states could be held in Nairobi (Kenya) for the determination of criteria and procedure for appointing Delegates of civil society and local governments and – especially – Delegates of political parties within civil society. They should also study and implement appropriate measures for the organization of the Pan-African Conference Sovereign.
4. Governmental structure during the Transition
|SN||Departments under a member of the PCT for political supervision||Government agencies under a Prime Minister for technical coordination|
|I||Justice and Human Rights||
|II||Institutions of Regulation||
|VI||Financial and Monetary Affairs||
|VII||Budget and Planning||
|VIII||Family and Social Affairs||
|IX||Health and Environment||
|X||Education and Scientific Research||
|XVI||Army and National Defense||
5. First major objective: basic political organization
As unitary republic, the ”Republic of Lumumba” should be highly decentralized with 24 autonomous districts.
The administrative hierarchy could be like this:
- District : political autonomy
- Canton : coordinating and supervising the activities of municipalities
- Municipality : devolution
- Cell : Framing populations
- Municipality : devolution
- Canton : coordinating and supervising the activities of municipalities
Every autonomous district would have its own local government (whose members are called Executive Councilors at the head of Local Executive Departments). Each district should elect its governor. It would have some powers (competencies) totally distinct of those of Central Government. National Defense and Foreign Affairs should remain exclusive areas of the Central Government but local Government would have its own police.
b. Major towns
”Major Towns” -5 million inhabitants or beyond – as districts and are entities with special status management. A major town could obtain direct support from Central Government in terms of budget support and technical assistance. Current administrative divisions of major cities would be ” ‘‘Cantons’’ (townships) divided into ‘‘Municipalities’’
c. Canton (with a big rural area)
Canton should be a coordinating body of various activities of the executive departments on the ground. Canton responsible and his high ranked agents would be directly accountable to the District Governor in terms of supervising the activities of municipalities. A Canton should correspond to current regions of Uganda, to current provinces of South Sudan and Kenya and to the whole Rwanda as a single new district. ,
Municipality would be a set of cells under the political leadership of a mayor. Each executive department of the local government should provide support to municipalities through its field services. A mayor of a municipality would be elected by the representatives of cells composing this municipality.
During the early years of the Transition, officers of local government would be appointed by the Presidential Council of Transition on proposal of Prime Minister. During the second half of the Transition, local elections will be held in the following manner:
• The people directly elect councils of cells (urban and rural);
• Councils of cells should vote their delegates to Municipal Councils (rural or urban) ;
• Municipal Councils should elect or designate their delegates to sit at Local Assemblies at District level on the basis of individual application or a specific form of local designation.
• The number of members of a Local assembly will depend on the population size of the district. They would be called ‘‘Legislative Councilors”.
• The Governor of District would be elected by universal direct and secret suffrage.
• Municipal mayors would be elected by the members of the Boards of cells in together in Elective Assembly.
The structure of a Local Government would be identical as following:
|District Governor (every 5 years)||Administrative Level|
|Service of cooperation|
|10 Departments||1 District Level||2 Canton Level||Municipal Level|
|Economy and Small and Medium Enterprises||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Social affairs and Communication||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Economic Planning, Budget and Finance||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Security and Police||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Health and Environment||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Infrastructure and Energy||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Agriculture and informal businesses||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Education, Culture and Sports||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Justice and Human Rights||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
|Public Administration||Local Coordination||Cantonal Services||Municipal Services|
6. Second major objective: basic economic organization
Support to creation of businesses by Lumumbians in the field of production, to technological innovations and to efficient organization of public and private institutions should be the basic principles of the Lumumbian economy. In this perspective, the fight against corruption should be a true national religion.
To initiate and conduct a such process of sustainable development, we should have :
• A single currency: PESA and a single Central Bank: Lumumbian Central Bank (LCB).
• The Local Monetary Councils (local control of the money supply and participation to national monetary policy)
• One Public Revenue Agency (To collect all taxes due and leave 40 % for districts, 50% for the Central Government and 10% for the Equalization Fund).
• All former Public Enterprises should be merged (sector by sector) and – more or less – opened to private investment. Large private companies in strategic areas (oil companies, airlines and shipping companies, mining companies) are expected to sign agreements with the central government to set up joint ventures, agreements assigning specific tasks for local development where they would operate.
• Specific criteria should be used (level of capital, strategic importance of the field) to distinguish large enterprises from small and medium-sized enterprises operating on a local basis.
7. Third major objective: basic organization of Courts
|Subject matter||Municipal Level||Cantonal Level||District Level||Central(Final court of appeal)|
|Penal||Penal Municipal Court||-||Penal District Court||Cassation Court (High Court)|
|Civil||Civil Municipal Court||Civil Cantonal Court||-|
|Military||MilitaryMunicipal Court||-||Military District Court|
|Administrative||Administrative Municipal Court||-||Administrative District Court||State Administrative Court|
|Political||-||Political Cantonal Court||Political District Court||Constitutional Court|
As indicated in the above table, there would be three levels (maximum) for an appeal in Lumumbian judiciary system.
The Supreme Court is divided into three chambers and Judges should be appointed – for life- by Senate:
- 15 Judges proposed by Head of State.
- 15 Judges proposed by President of the National Assembly
- 15 Judges proposed by President of the Senate.
The 45 Judges of the Supreme Court should subdivide themselves into different rooms (State Administrative Court, Cassation Court (High Court) and Constitutional Court). They should elect their Chairman, a Vice -President for each chamber. The functioning of courts would be assisted by the Central Government through a Support Office to judicial institutions. The 45 judges should meet (Supreme Court) for certain matters expressly provided for by the Constitution.
During the transition period, the Judges of the Supreme Court would be appointed by the Presidential Council pending the general elections at the end of this Transition.
8. Fourth major objective: basic organization of the army and security services
The army must be a tangible sign of the new republic.
During the transition period, the objectives of the reform of the defense and security sector would be:
• To recruit at least 400 000 new soldiers from all district and train them in the same spirit.
• To establish a unified command for the 4 former armies, each considered as an army with its own well-defined divisions. These armies should be sent out of their usual areas (countries). Each of these 4 former armies would have a recycling center under new operating rules of the New Lumumbian Army (NLA) and a common language of command.
• To demobilize one party in each former army by pouring it either in the body of veterans or in the Army Reserve and to direct another party to various local polices.
The supreme organ of national security would be the National Security Council. During the transition period, its function would be assumed by the Presidential Council of Transition but expanded to the Prime Minister and high-ranked leaders of the Army.
In collaboration with the Unified Command of New Lumumbian Army (NLA), the National Security Council would establish a functional structure of security services.
9. Fifth major objective: setting-up a strategic alliance in diplomacy
Economic and social development must clearly appear as the substance of the sought African Union. But, to begin and achieve this sustainable development, it requires a prior political process. It is necessary to distinguish purposes of this approach: economic integration is the goal of the constructive approach of African Unity which is essentially political. For Europe, the Treaty of Rome established this prior political process. ‘‘Rome’’ political process gave birth to today’s European economy.
In Africa, there are still no real national economies. For and by us, we need a specific policy path. It is crucial to assembly different pieces of ‘‘economies’’ of Africa in a one and new dynamic economy. To facilitate first political integration, secondly economic integration and then finally social progress, we must rely on Panafrican Cultural Elements. OAU was just an institution grouping African states. And African Union (AU) does not yet provide a framework for the creation of major regional states. In addition, there is – on the field – a sort of resurgence of tribalism.
The sectarian ethnic behaviors and tribalism are default solidarity within states plagued by personal political conflicts. A nationalist sham serves as ideological tool for unproductive elites. Today’s African States – inherited from colonization – had become hopelessly closed fields of fratricide competitions, exactly as programmed by the colonialists. “Nationalism” does not work as a factor of integration and advancement of the people. African States are often instrument of shameless enjoyment of social privileges.
In international politics, it is impossible to navigate with ease without a major strategic doctrine. Panafricanism is an opportunity for us to redefine ourselves – within united Africa – new districts (provinces) that allow leaders of these local entities to effectively meet the concerns of populations. Therefore, it is important to redesign – politically -a non- colonial configuration in Africa. New African and big regional states should appear in this 21th century.
In this context, we could easily envisage cooperation with West – freely and truly privileged – based not only on democratic values (dialogue, debate and compromise, civil power at the head of State Administration and separation of powers, judicial system independent) but also on the weight of history (African Diaspora, interpenetration of economic structures, common cultural references). It will be imperative to sign a lasting friendship pact, clear and mutually beneficial.
10. Core values of the new Republic
Values of ”Liberty”,” Justice” and” Progress” should be the foundation of the new ”Republic of Lumumba”. They are absolutely useless if they are not actually perceived through their relations, as shown in the intersections in the figure below.
Innovation is a product of the exercise of individual genius (freedom) to the service of his community. The central government should build an endogenous economic system allowing individuals to transform their personal talents into innovations and continuous change.
Development is a vast movement of endogenous innovations or external contributions incubated and efficient transformation of social structures. Local governments should contribute to development by strengthening individual capabilities within a single social system.
The heart of modern political values is the safety of persons and property. Taken together, political institutions must act as a unit in the service of collective security. Security is primarily the feeling of not being threatened. Hate speech, social harassment, sectarian exclusion … are among the threats against which a security organization must fight to ensure the tranquility of the people. Organization of the ”security” should not be reduced to its operational services.
It is urgent to create a Pan-African Civil Society Organization of (PCSO), an independent organization of political regimes both to support the idea of a rapid realization of African Unity but also to influence ”expressed political wills” …for a greater democratization of our african societies which were deeply denatured by european colonization.
ANNEX: Autonomous districts in the new ”Republic of Lumumba”
|1||Northern Bahr el Ghazal||Aweil|
|2||Western Bahr el Ghazal||Wau|
|Districts from KENYA||Capital|
|COAST of KENYA||Mombassa|
|NORTH EASTERN KENYA||Garissa|
|Districts form Uganda||